Effective government requires that institutions be strong enough to control the efforts of organized, entrenched special interests in favor of the broader interests shared but poorly articulated by most members of society. Recent changes in our institutions and in the problems they face raise doubts about the capacity of contemporary American government to handle these parochial forces. Congress has seemingly become more fragmented, the presidency more politicized, and the bureaucracy more labyrinthine.
This article is a revised version of “The International System and Foreign Policy” in The President, the Congress, and the Making of Foreign Policy (Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994), 3-22.
Reprinted in Jeffrey Cohen and David Nice, eds., The Presidency: Classic and Contemporary Readings, Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2002.
Reprinted in The Brookings Review, Winter, 1993, pp. 18-23 and, in abridged form, in Harper's, February, 1993, pp. 23-26.
Examines the conventional wisdom about federal grants. Considers the implementation and operation of federal programs for education, health care, and housing in four urban areas to learn which programs worked, when, and why.